(PANJABI): - Seth Jagatrai.
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are Nukh cousins of Lalwani and Uttamsingh of Hyderabad. They are Diwans.
Jagtianis migrated to Sind from Punjab. They are named after their great
grandfather Seth Jagatrai.
amongst this family was Seth Chandumal, who during the Mir’s reign (year 1835)
was a jeweler. The Mirs were fond of jewelry and honored Seth Chandumal with a
title: “By Appointment, Jewelers to the Mirs”.
Chandumal had six sons: M/s. Hundomal, Udhavdas, Ghanshamdas, Tirthdas, Kundomal
and Verhomal. Their firm was known as “M/s. V. Kundandas Chandumal”. In the
year 1947, they had branches at Hyderabad, Karachi and Bombay.
Kundomal expired in 1942 at the age of 65 years. He had two sons, Bhai Khemchand
and Bhai Pitamberdas. The shop at Hyderabad was looked after by Bhai Khemchand
and Karachi shop at ‘Mitho Dar’ by Bhai Pitamberdas.
Kundomal’s brother Seth Verhomal was born in 1885. He expired at the age of 42
Verhomal had two sons: M/s. Parsram and Jairamdas. Seth Parsram looked after the Bombay office. The Karachi branch located
in the Elphinstone Street was managed by Seth Jairamdas.
were scattered all over the Sind. Notanis of Bhareen, Jethanis of village Khahi
Qasam, District Navsheri Firoz and Gianchandanis of Tharoo Shah have the same
Nukh. Jethras lived at Mori,
Sikrand, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Bobak, Larkana and other places.
There was a
saying: “Jethra Gad Na Vethra”. Meaning Jethras did not group together.
Rochiram Jesalram, retired Mukhtiarkar and others called themselves Jethra. In
the year 1947 there were nine Jethra families living in Larkana. Jethras are
worshipers of Devi Mata and do not consume onion and garlic.
JETHWANI: - Diwan Jethmal.
Ambwani, Bhagwanani, Keswani and Mulchandani are Nukh cousins of Jethwanis. It is said
that in some battle that their ancestors fought, they ran short of ammunition
and used kakar (pebbles) instead. Hence the name Kukreja, i.e. Kakriwara.
ancestors came to Sind from Punjab and settled at Kherpur. Their first cousins
are Bhagwanani of Kherpur.
Jethmal, after whom the Jethwanis are named, was Bhagwanani. One of his family
member was married in to the family of Diwan Mansukhdas Awatramani of Tharoo
Shah. The member expired leaving behind his widow and an infant son. The widow
along with the child left Kherpur and returned to her parent’s house at Tharoo
Shah. Jethwanis of Tharoo Shah are descendants of that widow and her son.
surviving amongst the Jethwanis were Master Alimchand Sachanand postmaster of
Navsheri Firoz and his brothers Mr. Sukhramdas and Mr. Dayaram.
Arorvanshi. During the Arab invasion their ancestors left Aror (Alwar) and
migrated to Punjab. Later some of them returned to Sind and settled at Larkana,
Sakhar, Thhato and Shikarpur. Chawlas were amongst the first Hindus to settle at
CHHABLANI: - Diwan Sabaldas
having Khathoria as their Nukh migrated to Sind from Punjab. Some of them went
to Shikarpur and others to Khudabad and then to Hyderabad.
that Ajwani, Bhavnani, Jagtiani, and Gidwani are cousins. But it is not so as
their Nukh is Manchanda. Even Motwanis (Diwan Basantram and others) are
grandfather of Chhablani was Diwan Sabaldas (Chhabaldas) who, it is said was
fond of all the good things in life. He loved to eat rich food.
It is said
that Diwan Chhablani's family was very wealthy and well to do. They had a large
herd of cattle that gave them abundant quantity of milk. The saying goes to say
that after one of the daughters-in-laws washed her feet with milk their wealth
decreased and Maya (Laxmi = Money) departed.
two branches of Chhablani. One branch lived alongside the Shivdasanis of Gosain
Surajgar Ghitti and the other along side the Sipahmalanis. In 1947, the
Chhablanis of both the branches lived at Hirabad (Hyderabad) and at Karachi. The
Chhablani of Gosain Surajgar Ghitti and Shivdasanis had a common panchayat and a
community hall that in the year 1947 was in dilapidated condition.
Gosain Surajgar Ghitti Chhablanis came Diwan Bhorsingh. His sons: Diwan Hassomal
and Diwan Chetanram. Both were Advocates. Diwan Hassomal was Mukhtiarkar
(District Administrator) appointed by the Mirs.
British takeover, the Mirs were to be deported to Calcutta and at their (Mirs)
request Diwan Hassomal was permitted by the British to accompany them. In 1857,
on his return journey from Calcutta, Diwan Hassomal was injured in a scuffle.
Hassomal’s family: Mr. Naraindas Ramchand Chhablani MA and others.
other branch of Chhablani, Diwan Vishindas Mukhtiarkar. His two sons: Diwan
Thawardas and Diwan Bulchand. Both were zamindars.
Vishindas’ brother was Diwan Ghanshamdas. He also had two sons: Diwan Lalchand
Mukhtiarkar and Diwan Kotumal Forester (Forest Officer). Diwan Lalchand
Mukhtiarkar was a honest and God fearing man. He expired at Amar Kot.
Chhablanis, the family of Mr. Parmanand Chetanram was also prominent.
Chhablanis who lived next to the Sipahmalanis, respected their customs and
participated with them in all the functions, even though their Nukh was
different i.e. Nagdev. Sipahmalanis considered them as member of the same Bradri.
amongst the Chhablani was Diwan Bahardinomal Majlasrai who had two sons: Diwan
Dayaram and Diwan Lekhraj.
Lekhraj had four sons: M/s. Parmanand, Hashmatrai, Mangharam and Bulchand.
Mr. Parmanand, a medical doctor, was connected with Hyderabad’s Civil and other
Municipal Hospitals. His son Mr. Satsaran, was in 1947, professor of Economics
with D. J. Sind College at Karachi.
Hashmatrai was born in 1889 and expired in the year 1934. Right from the young
age he was brilliant. While still in school, he received ‘Middle School
Scholarship’. On reaching High School, he received ‘High School’ and
Hashmatrai stood first in the University exams as well. He had chosen Physics,
Chemistry, History, and Economics as his subjects. In the year 1911, after doing
his BA, he passed M.Sc. and again stood first in the University exam and won
‘Tilang Gold Medal’.
Hashmatrai was a professor at B. B. College in Bihar, D. A. V. College Lahore,
Jaswant College Jodhpur, and Benaras Hindu University and at Elphinstone College
Bombay. He was Principal of Hyderabad’s Dayaram Gidumal National College as
well. Later, Professor Hashmatrai was appointed head of Delhi University’s
Economics Department. In 1929, Professor Hashmatrai became member of Govt. of
India’s ‘Banking Inquiry Committee'.
arose to separate Sind from Bombay Presidency. Professor Hashmatrai opposed the
proposal. He, Professor Hashmatrai was a very good narrator and fluent in
English and Sindhi. He awakened the Hindus and brought to their notice that
though the Hindus were in minority in Sind, yet they contributed a major chunk
in taxes to Sind’s exchequer. If Sind separated, contribution for the
shortfall from Bombay’s exchequer would stop and the same would have to be
borne by the Hindus as they being the trading community, would have to be the
sole contributors. He vigorously pleaded against the separation.
Hashmatrai published a book in English giving facts and figures showing the
amount of money Bombay Presidency had contributed to meet Sind’s shortfall
since 1847. The figures awakened the Governments at Bombay and Delhi.
publication of his book, Prof. Chhablani became famous overnight throughout
table conference was to be held at London, and Prof. Chhablani was deputed by
the British Indian Govt. to express his views. It was at this conference that
decision took place to separate Sind from Bombay effective 1936 with the
understanding that any shortfall in Sind’s budget would be met by the Govt. of
Chhablani wrote many books concerning the currency, banking and internal
problems of India. He also wrote on ‘History of England’ in two volumes.
Diwan Bherumal M. Advani, the author, had translated the same in to Sindhi and
in 1947 they were textbooks in the schools.
Hashmatrai L. Chhablani was responsible for the creation of Karachi’s Model
High School and a Municipal School that was named after him. Khudabadi Amil
Panchayat’s Hospital on Karachi’s Bunder Road was also named after him.
Mangharam was born in 1896. He passed his BA in 1917 and taught at Govt. owned
S. T. C. D. College at Bombay. In 1921 he received First Class Diploma. After
passing his B.A., he joined the Education Dept. While teaching at Karachi’s
Govt. High School, Mr. Mangharam passed his M.A. In 1926, with the help of his
brother Prof. Hashmatrai, he established Karachi’s Model High School and was
its Principal. In 1936, Mr. Mangharam inaugurated Wadhumal Bulchand High School
at Karachi on Bunder Road Extension. The following year he added a primary
School to it. In 1947, Mr. Chandiram Bulchand Advani was its Principal.
Mangharam was President of Head Masters Association at Karachi and Vice
President of Karachi’s Boy Scout Association. In 1947, he was Secretary of
Indian Girls High School Karachi. He was Hon. Secretary of Karachi’s Education
Advancement Society and of Female Education Society. Mr. Mangharam was in 1947,
treasurer and member of the managing committee of Karachi’s Hyderabad Amil
Panchayat, and had written many books.
Hassaram Parmanand Chhablani, the retired Engineer, was in fact a Mirchandani,
but had changed his surname to Chhablani. He was grandson of Munshi Adomal
CHHATWANI: - Seth
are from Rohiri. Their forefather Seth Chhatomal was born at Rohiri. He started
his career as a jeweler in the State of Kherpur but changed his vocation and
moved on to Hyderabad where he started a Wine Distillery.
British forces occupied Sind and in the year 1887 British Government installed
their own Distillery at Kotri and that led to closure of all privately owned
distilleries. Seth Chhatomal expired the next year (1888). While at Hyderabad,
he lived in Diwan Jhuromal Ghitti and had maintained his contacts with Rohiri
Chhatomal had one son named Mr. Tarachand who married into Chandwani family of
Old Sakhar. Living at Hyderabad, Seth Chhatomal had his two daughters married
Tarachand Chhatomal’s son Mr. Mulchand was born in 1872 in Jhuremalani Ghitti.
He passed the 'Committee Exam' in Sindhi. (British
Government needed local Sindhi graduates. They introduced ‘Committee
Examination”, that was also known as ‘Public Service Commission Exam’.
Certificates were awarded to successful candidates signed by the Education
Inspector. This made them eligible for lower grade Govt. jobs with a starting
salary of Rupees Twenty-five. The Certificate was called ‘Second Class
Mulchand spent two years at the Training College and qualified for teachers job
in Sindhi Schools. He taught at Navalrai Hiranand Academy’s Sindhi Schools and
also at Hyderabad’s Municipal Schools. Author Diwan Bherumal M. Advani states
that his brother Mr. Thawardas M. Advani also taught at the Municipal School
near Qilo and through him he had the opportunity to make acquaintance with Mr.
Bherumal further writes that between the years 1890 and 1894, the three of them
(Mr. Mulchand, Mr. Thawardas and Diwan Bherumal) met every evening and visited
Sain (respectful) Kesoram and Sain Hariram Sufi’s Tikano (Gurdwara) at
Sipahmalani Ghitti to hear the Katha (recitals) and participate in the Arti.
After the Arti, Master Mulchand sang and recited Sufi Qalams.
Mulchand had five sons. His second son Mr. Lakhimal had passed his M.A. and was
Head Master of Rohiri Municipal High School. He had (in 1947) three sons who
were in service.
CHHUGANI: - Diwan
Keswani, Mulchandani, Ambwani and Jethwani have same Nukh. The are all
are followers of Sikhism. From Punjab they migrated to Kherpur Mir Sahib where
the Mirs appointed them as Diwans.
British take over they shifted to Ratay Deray near Larkana and constructed their
own village called ‘Panjo Deray’. Chhuganis were originally zamindars and as
time went by some of them got educated and became Advocates, Doctors and some
took up employment.
In the year
1918, the male members of ‘Panjo Deray’ had gone to ‘Bangal Deray’ to
attend a Panchayat election and had left behind an 83 year old Diwan Kiratrai
Hardaram Chhugani to look after the village. Taking advantage of the situation a
band of dacoits raided the village and killed the Diwan. After this tragedy the
Chhuganis moved to Larkana.
Chhagomal Bindomal, after whom the Chhugani’s are named, had five sons. Diwan
Kiratrai Hardaram Chhugani was Chhagomal’s grandson.
KHUBCHANDANI (1): - Diwan
The Khubchandanis, prior to coming to Hyderabad, lived at Khudabad. Khosas (a caste
among the Muslims) burnt Khudabad in 1759 that resulted in Khubchandanis leaving
the city and moving to Tilty, District Saywan accompanied by their distant
during the Mirs reign, Hyderabad developed and Khubchandanis moved again to live
at Aktaraiee Ghitti, where those who had earlier migrated from ‘Aktar’
from Tilty, the Khubchandanis were at first called Tiltiyani and identified as
Khudabadi Amils. Their children married into Amils.
Hindus from Aktaraiee Ghitti were considered Bhaibunds and they had their own
Khubchands roots was Diwan Rahumal. His (Diwan Rahumal) son Diwan Khanchand was
editor of ‘Sind Sudhar’ that was the first Sindhi newspaper to be published
in Sind. From 1884 to 1887, Sadhu Hiranand was its editor and Diwan Khanchand
later took over from him. Unfortunately, the paper shut down in mid nineteen
amongst the Khubchandanis, in 1947, were Diwan Issardas, Diwan Sahsanmal and
KHUBCHANDANI (2): -
partition of India, the Author, Diwan Bherumal M. Advani was not able to gather
sufficient data on these Khubchandanis. Diwan Hotchand Nenumal Khubchandani had
written a volume ‘Present History of Sindworkees’ that Diwan Bherumal has
incorporated in his volumes. (Please read
‘History of present (1947) Sindworkees’ in ‘SIND JAY HINDUN JEE TAREEKH’,
part two, chapter four that has been translated into English by the translator).
DUDANI: - Sardar Doda Singh.
migrated from Punjab and settled at Larkana, Kanber, Nasserabad and Hyderabad.
Their forefather Sardar Doda Singh was related to Maharaja Ranjit Singh of
Punjab. Some differences arose within the family that led to Sardar Doda Singh
and his family leaving Punjab.
arrival in Sind, an issue arose amongst Sardar Doda Singh and his four sons as
to whether they should shave and cut their hairs and become ‘Mona’
(clean-shaven Sikh) or not. Unable to resolve the issue, they separated.
went to Larkana, while other went to Kanber. The third left for Nasserabad and
fourth went to Hyderabad. They all called themselves Dudani.
Kanber were zamindars and were considered as Bhaibunds. Bhai Manghosingh and
Bhai Mohansingh were Mukhis of Kanber.
Dudanis of Larkana worked as Munshis (manager) to the Mirs. When the British
rule came, they worked as Munshis for them as well and were identified as Amils
Singh and after him his son Diwan Karam Singh were Mukhis of Larkana, who were
the descendants of Gurdin Singh son of Doda Singh. After the death of Diwan
Karam Singh, the panchayat nominated Diwan Kimat Singh to take charge as Mukhi,
but he declined the seat in favour of Diwan Menghraj, who was a Mona.
Singh son of Lakha Singh Dudani was a schoolteacher and was fluent in Farsi
(Persian). Diwan Chandumal Advani of Hyderabad was a Daftardar (Revenue Officer
- Registrar) at Sakhar and did not have any distinction between Hyderabadi or
Non Hyderabadis and Amil or Bhaibund, so long as the person was capable and
worthy of the post. He got Diwan Kimat Singh recruited with the Revenue
Singh proved his worthiness and rose to the rank of First Grade Mukhtiarkar
(District Administrator) and later as Acting Deputy Collector. He had seven
Prem Singh. He sired two sons: Mr. Moti Singh and Mr. Rewa
Singh, both worked with the Engineering Dept.
Kewal Singh. He sired Mr. Teck Singh and Mr. Kalyan Singh. Mr. Kalyan Singh had a welding workshop.
Choith Singh retired Accountant. He sired three sons.
Mr. Shanker Singh who was a clerk in the Sind Secretariat and two other
Verho Singh BA, LL.B. Advocate. Diwan Verho Singh was for 21 years Larkana’s Municipal Counselor and 3 years it’s Vice president.
He was awarded Coronation Medal. His daughter, in 1947, was in college studying Science.
Sahib Singh, was an Advocate and Municipal Counselor for
many years. In his memory, a clock tower was constructed in Gandhi
Kodu Singh was a graduate and taught at Larkana English
School. His son Mr. Gurdin Singh was a clerk with Sind Secretariat.
Three other sons of Diwan Kodu Singh, were in 1947, still
Singh, the eldest son of Diwan Kimat Singh, was born in 1866. With hard work and
zeal, Diwan Jessa Singh proved his worth and capability. He rose to the rank of
Deputy Collector and retired in the year 1916.
Singh was a pious and religious man. He expired on Jan. 3rd 1932. He had 3 sons:
(1) Dr. Keso Singh M.B.B.S. Eye Specialist, (2) Mr. Chuhar Singh Advocate who
was known in college as Chuhar Singh Kimatsinghani and (3) Doctor Sobh Singh.
Singh Dudani was teacher in Larkana’s Sindhi School. Along with him teaching
in the same school was Master Diwan Ailmal Kundanmal, father of Diwan
Chatursingh Advocate and Rai Bahadur Diwan Jagatsingh, retired Collector of
Hyderabad. They both were good friends and very close to one another.
Diwan Kimatsingh’s sons, Diwan Jessasingh and Diwan Kewalsingh, married Master
Chatursingh Advocate, son of Master Ailmal, married twice. His second marriage
was with the sister of Diwan Gobindbux Lakhmichand Dudani. At the instance of
Diwan Chatursingh Advocate, author Diwan Bherumal’s son Late Diwan Pribhdas
a.k.a. Harnamsingh married Diwan Gobindbux’s daughter.
Gobindbux spent the last few years of his life at Sakhar and expired on 12th
August 1946 at the age of 76. He had two sons, Mr. Chetanram born in 1905, who
was Civil Engineer and worked as overseer at Sakhar Barrage and Mr. Verhomal
born in 1915, an Electrical Engineer and proprietor of Moti Electric & Radio
Company at Larkana.
above named Dudanis, there were others in Larkana viz. Mr. Anand Kumar, Acting
Sub. Judge Rohiri. His Nukh was also ‘Harjpal’ but his roots do not reflect
in the Dudani family tree.
It is said
that during the Mirs reign, an ancestor of Mr. Anand Kumar working as an
employee in the jail, helped a political prisoner escape. The Jail employee was
caught and sentenced to death on Dassera day. Since then, these Dudanis don’t
during the same time that the Dudanis of Hyderabad migrated to Gareli district
Larkana. Bhai Morosingh the elder Dudani, was a zamindar and a grain merchant.
From Gareli they moved to Larkana and lived in Dudani paro (street).
Morosingh’s son Bhai Sobhraj had four sons. The eldest son Mr. Menghraj was
called Diwan and was the Mukhi of all Larkana Dudanis.
Menghraj’s son Mr. Lokram was a postmaster. His son was Dr. Gunomal. Dr.
Gunomal’s son Mr. Anand Kumar, Acting Sub. Judge, had resigned from his post
DHANJANI: - Mr. Dhanji.
lived at Kotri district Halla. The author Diwan Bherumal writes that though the
city of Kotri had lost its importance, the name ‘Kotri’ will always remain
evergreen in the mind, as it was here that Shah Abdul Latif married the daughter
of the Hakim (ruler) of Kotri.
It is said
that there were three brothers living at Kotri at that time. Mr. Dhanji, Mr.
Sadhan and a third brother whose name the author was unable to trace.
Dhanji’s descendants are called Dhanjani and lived at Kotri. His brother Mr.
Sadhan moved to village Khando near Bhat Shah, and his descendants are called
was commonly called Dhanji Shah. He had two sons: M/s. Sukhyo and Madan. Bhai
Madan was a Bhagat and a pious man. He was a friend and household member of Shah
there were only one or two Dhanjani households at village Khando as the others
had moved out. The successor to the seat of Swami Teoram Bhagat at Tando Adam
was a Dhanjani.
are from Halla Paranan. They lived in Sahtan Jo Paro along with Tilani,
Dheromalani, Garibdasani, Khatar, Manshiani and Hiranandani. They are followers
of Gosain and worship Devi Mata.
amongst them are Diwan Kirparam Mukhtiarkar (District Administrator) and his son
Diwan Molram Deputy Collector.
DHODEJA: - Raja Dhoda.
Lohanas (see Lohana and Arorvanshi
chapters). Lohana’s are descendants of Shree Ramachandra’s son Lava. Colonel
Todd in his volume ‘History of Rajistan’, has made a mention of a ruler by
the name of Dhoda who lived during the 6th century. Dhoda was a son
of an ordinary Sardar (chieftain) who had through his gallantry ruled over his
State that was near the present cities of Jaisalmer and Bhawalpur. His
descendants carry his name viz.; Dhodeja i.e. children of Dhoda.
had twelve sons. But after his death, the sons fought amongst themselves and
lost every thing.
information of Dhodeja family was not available, but in the History of Rajastan
there is mention of a Senapati (Commander in Chief) Dhoda noted for his bravery.
there were Dhodeja families living at Amritsar, Multan, Lower Punjab, Bhawalpur
around 200 households of Dhodejas in Shikarpur. Out of 200, 50 households
belonged to the descendants of Bhai Santdas Dhodeja.
Shikarpur during the eighteenth century was a wealthy merchant by the name of
Bhai Santdas Rahindas. His son Bhai Tarachand was manufacturer and fabricator of
Brass and Copper utensils, employing around 30 to 40 persons. His was the Mukhi
(chairman) of the Association of Fabricators. Bhai Tarachand’s utensils were
renowned throughout the Sind, Qalat, Kandhar and Iran.
Tarachand had seven sons: M/s. Lekhraj, Chellaram, Pessumal, Jeomal (Jairamdas),
Dedharam, Topandas and Bulchand.
Lekhraj had spent most of his time in Quetta trading with Pathans from Kandhar,
Chaman and Qalat. He was a religious man and expired in the year 1921.
four sons of Bhai Tarachand: Bhai Chellaram, Bhai Jeomal (Jairamdas), Bhai
Dedharam and Bhai Topandas also traveled to Bilakh Bukhare, Samarkandh and
Yarkandh for business. Having made their wealth, Bhai Tarachand, Bhai Chellaram,
Bhai Jeomal and Bhai Dedharam returned to Sind and started their own business.
Bhai Topandas stayed back at Bilakh Bukhare and spent fourteen years there.
transferred or remitted by mode of ‘Hundies’ (bill of exchange) (Hawala). No
cash was carried on person. Money was paid in exchange for a hand written Hundi
(note) to a Shikarpuri Seth (Shroff) in one city and collected in cash from
another Seth (Shroff) in another city. These Shroffs had their offices in China,
Java, Sumatra, Iran, Iraq, Russia, Bukhare, Yaarkand, and Samarkand.
Topandas, on his return to Sind from Bukhare, had brought some Russian currency
(Rubbles) notes that turned out to be worthless as due to Russian revolution the
old currency notes issued by the Czars ceased to be legal tender and became
worthless. These currency notes were then used as wallpaper in Shikarpur.
Topandas and Bhai Dedharam along with his seven sons, their wives perished in
the 1935 Quetta earthquake. Only two daughters survived. The daughters got
married around the year 1946.
Pessumal, son of Bhai Tarachand, was an intellectual man. He was fond of reading
and learning specially Sanskrit. He did his Matriculation in Sanskrit when the
medium of teaching in those days was Farsi (Persian). The University appointed
Maratha Pundits to check his papers. Despite this, Bhai Pessumal passed out.
Sind acknowledged Bhai Pessumal’s knowledge of Sanskrit and consulted him for
sorting out their difficulties in the language. Bhai Pessumal’s object was to
propagate Sanskrit. At Larkana, he opened a night school that taught Hindi.
propagate Hindi, in 1915 Bhai Pessumal organized the first Hindi conference.
This let to Sanskrit consciousness and schools teaching Hindi and Sanskrit
became popular throughout the upper Sind. Bhai Pessumal was secretary of
‘Sudhar Sabha’ and president of many institutions.
end of nineteenth century, Bhai Pessumal passed his Law, and practiced for 35
years. Bhai Pessumal dressed as Diwan in Mir’s attire and was popularly called
Diwan Pessumal. He was the Secretary and for some time President of Larkana Bar
Association. He had a lucrative practice and refused Judgeship offers. Diwan
Pessumal, a pious and philanthropic man expired in 1931.
Pessumal had five sons: M/s. Kaniyalal, Lokram, Karamchand, Ramchand and
Madhavdas. Bhai Kaniyalal, also a pious man, was a cotton merchant cum broker at
Karachi in 1947.
worked for 12 years with Lloyds Bank and thereafter opened a stationary shop in
Karachi that he had to dispose off due to eviction caused by partition of India.
had a Glass factory located near Hyderabad Railway Station by the name of
‘Indian Glass works’ in partnership with his brother Diwan Karamchand. The
factory employed around 600 persons, manufacturing around 250 different types of
bottles, and water glasses. The products made in the factory were not only sold
in Sind but also exported to Bombay, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Ajmer, Kathiawar,
Gujarat, Madras, Delhi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Iran, Afghanistan and Africa. The
factory was professionally managed.
Karamchand passed his B.A. (Eng.) and joined the Government service as an
engineer. He was posted at Quetta. After serving eight years, he resigned in
1942 and joined his Sala (brother in law, wife’s brother) Seth Piyarelal
Valechha in business. Diwan Karamchand had not accepted any dowry on his
Ramchand, the fourth son of Diwan Pessumal, had his own business and the fifth
son Mr. Madhavdas BA, worked as a Secretary with the Indian Glass Works,
JAISING : - BY RAHUL.
Based on some historical hear say as narrated by our Elders in the Family from time to time when probed : “Somewhere around 1100 AD due to religious persecution in the region of then Persia, large groups of Hindus started to migrate by Sea route from Port Bander Abbas in Iran to Gwadar port then (British India now in Pakistan) and from there on to the port of Dwarka and probably took the land route in search of food & land to settle.
They ended up settling in the region of Siddhapur and Patan (now places in Gujarat), probably after being granted amnesty by the regional ruler’s and warlords of that time. It, was also said that the migratory groups were professional high caste Hindu’s and known for their fighting skills, due to the very up-bringing in the harsh dessert conditions. But, it was also said that they were excellent traders as well.
The first identity of this migratory Hindu Persians was given as ‘Jaisingh’ by the then ruler Raja Siddharaj Jaysinh sometime between 1120-1150 AD. Jaysinh or Jaising was a name given to these settlers which in turn meant “Hail the Desert Lions”.
There was a violent cross movement from Gujarat to Rajasthan areas in the period between 1140 to 1530 AD. Around 1750 a British Cavalry officer on a routine moment found these clans in migration under very difficult conditions, he then established contacts with his seniors and camped along with them till he was able to get his superiors to find some land to settle these groups as according to him, he found them to be of a well established and groomed society.
As, narrated this clan was identified as “SURYAVANSHI RAJPUT KSHATRIYA’S” . The Maharaja’s of Rajasthan are SURYAVANSHI’s. Over the next about 50 years this community settled in by British consent in Sind. The pattern of language, culture had by this time undergone vast changes from being Hindu Persians, to Gujarati’s then on to Rajasthani’s and now into Sindhis.
Elders told some of us that our forefathers carried arms which were then consigned in a well during the peaceful period of settlement. Thereby, giving up their past history and started leading their lives as traders. There are old pictures of Sindhi’s carrying arms. Also there are pictures of Sindhi ladies wearing sari’s in Parsi style. Why is the Sindhi script called “Farsi “ script written very similar to the Persian script, not by choice but by the very influence of the culture from Persia.
Our forefathers mostly wore yellow coloured turbans – a typical cultural upbringing during their time spent in decades in Rajasthan. Our elderly Mother’s had their names ending with ‘Devi’ or ‘Bai’ – again a typical culture of Rajasthan. Now on to our family group. The British chose the then head of the Jaisingh clan, who was three generations ahead of the last known head of the present family.
Our family Tree shows our forefathers lived in ‘Store Ganj Haveli’ in Shikarpur – who built it and when was it built ? ‘Haveli’s were built and used to accommodate large and extended families to live together under one roof - a practice of the bygone era. Records of 1923 (Samvat 1980) show my forefathers who recorded their family as possibly the 5th Generation in the Jaising lineage. The record shows the name written as JAISING without the ‘H’.
I assume it as 5th generation allowing for shorter spans of life in that period, early marriages and early mortality due to lack of medical help in the surrounding harsh areas they lived in. In continuation together with my first cousins I assume therefore I am probably the 11th generation in the Jaising Family without knowing the names of the forefathers of the 5th generation of Bhau Narsingdas Jaising. There are missing links in our transition history. In the exodus from Rajasthan to the point of our final place of settlement in Sindh
'The Source of Sindhi Surnames' is a
translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original
in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand