Dal Sabzi for the Aatman Dal Sabzi for the Aatman Dal Sabzi for the Aatman Dal Sabzi for the Aatman Dal Sabzi for the Aatman  
  ‼  Aum, Asato maa sadgamaya, Tamaso maa jyotirgamaya  ‼  
     

 

CHAPTER 8

BHAGCHANDANI

BHAGAT

BHAGWANANI

BHOJWANI

HOTCHAND

AN EPISODE

BHOJWANIS AID THE BRITISH

TULSIANI

THARANI

PARWANI/PERWANI

PAGRANI

POJARA-PUJARI

BHAGCHANDANI  (1): -

Bhagchandani are Bhatias and lived in Sikhan (Sikhs) Jo Paro in Sipahmalani Ghitti. (See Bhatia). 

Prominent amongst them was Mr. Metharam M. Bhagchandani who was a graduate and worked with Director of Public Instruction (Sind) as his personal assistant.

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BHAGCHANDANI (2): -

 Nukh: - Kamal.

These Bhagchandanis are Vanhans. ‘Vahni’ in Sanskrit means ‘Fire’. From this was derived ‘Vahnyan’. The pronunciation then changed to ‘Vanhan’, meaning ‘Aagahya’ or ‘Baah- wara’. Vanhan’s pronunciation also changed to ‘Vava’. (See Vanhan). 

Bhagchandanis are originally from Ayodhiya (Aodh). Their ancestors accompanied their Guru Sawai Jasraj to Agra and onwards to Sahiti. From Sahiti they moved on to Bobak in District Saywan. 

Many Bhagchandanis were graduates and some of them were foreign educated. There were Gazette officers, Engineers, Auditors, and Doctors. Bagchandanis were also zamindars and traders.

Bobak, though a small village was the only place where cultivation of Bhung (Hemp) under Government Supervision was permitted and sold at Government Depots. 

Bobak also produced tobacco, grain, seeds, lotus and carpets. It also had a match box factory.

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BHAGAT: -

Nukh: - Bhagat.

Bhagats lived at Pad-Eedan, district Navsheri Firoz and have their roots connected to Guru ‘Sawai Sahibjin’. 

Sawai Sahibjin hailed originally from Ayodhiya (Aodh), and had his links connected to the roots of Shri Ramachandra’s son Kush. They worship ‘Devi Mata’ and are Khatri Rajputs from Suryavanshi family. 

Sawai Sahibjin’s family tree splits into two branches.

From one branch came Kings viz. Maharaja Udhayraj, Sawai Mansingh Bahadur, Maharaja of Jaipur, and Indore’s Maharaja Udhay Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shree Yashwantrai Holkar Bahadur. (Ref. Times of India 1934-1935, annual issue).  

From the second branch came those who opted for Bhakti Marg, (path that leads to the devotion of God). Both the branches are known as ‘Sawai’. Sawai is a title that their ancestors had received after having achieved salvation (Sidhi).  

The Bhagats left Ayodhiya due to famine and moved to Hastanapur (towards Delhi). 

Families having Bhagat Nukh lived in Punjab as well. Near Simla there was a Princely State called Bhagat State. It is believed that the Bhagats of Sind had their links with them.  

From Delhi, the Bhagats migrated to Jaisalmer and entered Sind from Laloo Kot near Pad-Eedan. A few miles away from Kot Laloo Railway Station, there was a monument honoring ‘Sawai Aaiti Pursh’. A few members of Sawai Sahibjin’s cortege proceeded further to Chaneja Taluka Mori and some to Dadoo and Saywan.     

From Saywan, Sawai Nebhomal Uttamchand then went to Hyderabad and others to Tharoo Shah.   

During the reign of the Mirs, Diwan Idanmal Hingorani built Pad-Eedan and many Bhagats then shifted from Tharoo Shah to live there. 

A saint (sant) emerged from within them: Sawai Kewalram. He lived a very simple life and was full of Karamats (Miracles). His monument (Istan) stood in the center of Bhagat Mahilo, Pad-Eedan, where his wooden slippers were kept. All Bhagats prostrated before the slippers. 

After Sawai Kewalram, came Bhagat Kishindas, Bhagat Moryomal and Bhagat Jairamdas. 

Bhagat Kishindas was from village Nikar, taluka Sikarnand. His khat (sleeping cot) was revered and many devotees prostrated before it. Bhagat Kishindas and Bhagat Moryomal were also sants and full of Karamats. They were called ‘Bhagat Sahibs’.

Those Kewalramanis who lived at Bhareen are named after Sawai Kewalram even though they had no blood connection with him. They are descendants of his followers. 

Bhagats were traders. Pad-Eedan’s Diwans, Bhambhanis, Karnanis were zamindars while some of them were contractors (Thhekedars) and did not speak English. Till 1916-1917, Pad-Eedan had only one graduate. He was Prof. Mulchand Sakhramdas Bhambhani. Thereafter came the awakening and by 1947 Pad-Eedan had about 30 graduates, and 10 out of them were Bhagats. 

Bhagats soon were found holding high Govt. posts and many were Advocates. They are worshipers of Lord Mahadeva. Even before reciting Ramayana, they first prayed to Lord Mahadeva.

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BHAGWANANI: -

Nukh: Kukreja.

Bhagwanani, Ambwani, Keswani, and Mulchandani have the same Nukh. They  are Arorvanshi. (See Arorvanshi.) 

It is said that while fighting a battle, their ancestors ran out of ammunition and used Kakar (Pebbles) instead. Hence the name Kukreja, i.e. Kakriwara.

Bhagwanani lived at Kherpur Mir Sahibwari. Prominent amongst them was Diwan Mulram, City Magistrate and others. Jethwani is a branch of Bhagwanani.

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BHOJWANI: - Seth Bhojomal.

Nukh: Jasoja.

Bhojwanis are Arorvanshi. (See Arorvanshi.)

During the Arab invasion (711 AD) Bhojwanis migrated to Punjab to escape the onslaught of the Arabs and later returned back to Sind. 

Earlier Bhojwanis were called Sajnani, after their forefather Seth Sajanmal. Seth Sajanmal was the son of Seth Gurdasmal Rangomal. After coming to Karachi, they adapted Bhojwani as their surname, named after Seth Bhojomal son of Seth Nanikdas Sajanmal.    

Seth Sajanmal, a Lohano (See Lohana), was a renowned zamindar and trader. 

He lived in a town called Kahri, a small village located between Dadoo and Khudabad. The place was earlier called ‘Samtani Taluka’ that was the stronghold of Chana and Panohar Muslims. Kahri was the seat of entire Taluka.

Seth Sajanmal’s son Seth Nanikdas expanded his business and established many branches. 

Seth Nanikram had married twice. In 1709, from his first wife, Seth Bhojomal was born. 

From the second wife he had three sons: M/s. Kewalram, Hemraj and Bhagchand. 

Seth Bhojomal was born and brought up at Kahri and worked in his father’s office at Saywan. In the year 1725, whilst still 16 years old, he had a misunderstanding with his stepmother and separated from his father. 

Seth Bhojomal then left Saywan and went to what is now known as Karachi and started his own business. Karachi at that time was a fishing village and the Hindu traders lived about 15 miles away at a seaport called Kharak Bunder. They traded with Iran, Porbunder and towns along the Malabar coast. 

After Kharak Bunder, Seth Bhojomal expanded his operations to Sonmiyani, Gawadhar, Las Bela, Muscat, Shah Bunder, Lari Bunder, and Surat. 

In the year 1728, due to silting in the port of Kharak Bunder, Seth Bhojomal and others shifted to the present Old Town in Karachi. For details on how Karachi progressed please refer to ‘Story of Karachi’ in ‘Sind Jay Hindun Jee Tareekh’ (History of Hindus in Sind). 

As Karachi grew so did the silting at Shah Bunder. The sea shied away. No boat or ship could enter Shah Bunder. 

As Karachi prospered, the Kalhoras (Muslim rulers of Sind) laid their claim on the city and appointed Jokhyo Dariya Khan, a Nawab bestowed with the title of ‘Yaam’, as Karachi’s Nawab. Nagar Thhata was already in hands of the Kalhoras and ruled by an another Jokhyo by the name of Nawab Bajar Khan, who was also bestowed with the title of ‘Yaam’. 

The Bhojwanis and other Hindus who had earlier come to Karachi had established very cordial and friendly relationship with Yaam Dariya Khan. 

Yaam Dariya Khan’s desire was to build a fort around Karachi to safe guard his and Kalhoras wealth, life and stock. The Bhojwanis and other Hindus helped the Yaam to construct the fort with watchtowers where cannons imported from Muscat were placed. Ample ammunition was imported by the Bhojwanis and other Hindus that was stocked in their own godowns (warehouses). Karachi in those days was called Karachi Kot. 

Around 1782 - 1783, Zarak Khan, son-in-law of ‘Khan of Qalat’, died fighting alongside Miya Abdul Nabhi (a Kalhora Ruler) against the Mirs. His death would have resulted in a massacre had it not been for Miya Abdul Nabhi offering Karachi to Khan of Qalat, in compensation. The Bhojwanis and other Hindus then traded with Kharasan whose Caravans visited Karachi and camped near the Fort.  

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Saywan: - Looting.

In the year 1725, Seth Bhojomal separated from his father’s Saywan office and went to Karachi. There he joined his stepbrother Seth Kewalram and managed his operations. Business prospered and the branches expended. He had around 400 employees working for him in different towns and cities.

In 1782, things changed. The Kalhoras fought with Mirs at Halani and lost. The Mirs won. Seeing Miya Abdul Nabi lose the battle, the Hakim (ruler) of Kandhar dispatched a large force of Pathans under the command of Madad Khan to Sind. Reaching Sind, Madad Khan was unable to pay the wages to his men. They then resorted to looting and burning.

Seth Kewalram’s house at Saywan was ransacked and his entire wealth looted. Seth Kewalram had to flee for his life and escaped to safer grounds where he died of heart attack. 

After Seth Kewalram, his brother Seth Hemraj managed the affairs of business. The assets at Saywan were looted but his 400 branches all over India and his subordinates had sufficient funds for him to restart and recover the losses.   

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Defending the Brahmins: - 

In the year 1738, Badshah Nader Shah invaded Delhi and broke Mogul’s stronghold. After looting Delhi, Mathura and Lahore, he returned to Kabul. Travelling with him was Khan Nasir Khan of Qalat whose soldiers at Mathura had arrested and taken many Brahmins and their families as prisoners. 

News reached Sind that Khan Nasir Khan intended to take these Brahmin prisoners to Qalat by road via Shikarpur and Multan. Shrimati Takhatbai, wife of Seth Kewalram, (Seth Bhojomal’s younger brother) raised an alarm and concern for their safety. Letters were sent out by Seth Kewalram to his managers located at Shikarpur and at the border towns of Qalat, to pay ransom and get the Brahmins and their families released at any cost. Rs. 100/- to Rs. 250/- per person were paid for their release. Shrimati Takhatbai then arranged for their return to Mathura.   

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Sukhawat – (Modesty) in Bhojwanis: -  

During the year 1811-1812 famine hit Kutch, Kathiawar and Rajputana that lasted for nine months. To survive, parents sold their children in exchange for food. Bhojwanis had their offices in Kutch and Halla district. His (Bhojwani) managers purchased eight to ten children in exchange for grain and sent them to Karachi. 

Bhojwanis raised these children and when they were old enough to look after themselves, they gave them monetary help to start a new life. 

During the famine, many persons migrated to Sind from Kutch and Rajputana. Tahiliani of Thhat Taluka Navsheri Firoz and Jaisinghani of Ratay Deray were amongst them. 

With the famine and population growth, price of wheat and grain went up. Even cheaper grain was beyond the reach of a common man. 

Bhojwanis had a large stock of grain in their godowns. They issued instructions to their managers to give half a kilo of grain daily free to every person who went to their shop, be he Hindu or Muslim. 

Except for the stock of grain in the godowns of the Bhojwanis, no other stock was available with any one in the market. Wealthy Hindus, even though they had the money, could not buy the grain in the open market. They had to eat a humble pie and under the cover of darkness they stood in the queue for free grain. Bhojwanis realizing this ordered all the lights in the shops and godowns to be dimmed to protect their identity.    

Those who were aged or handicapped and could not go to collect the grain personally, the lion hearted Bhojwanis delivered one month’s stock to their homes.    

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Power Of Money: -  

Seth Bhojomal Nanikdas’ family members were all part and parcel of one joint family (Hindu Undivided Family). After the death of Seth Bhojomal in 1782, his sons remained and lived together as a joint family and prospered. Their outgoing expenditure per year including salaries to staff and managers were around rupees forty thousand per year. It was only after the demise of their mother Shrimati Parpatibai, wife of Seth Bhojomal, that the brothers separated.

Seth Bhojomal during his lifetime had hidden his wealth in an underground vault in one of his godowns. After his death, the sons had the floor dug and vault opened. It took 20 workers one full month to open the vault. They found five to six huge pots containing silver, gold coins, gold and silver muhars* (larger coins) and other valuables. 

 *(The currency during the reign of Mirs was called ‘Kora or Kori’ made of Silver. One Kori was worth ten annas {60 paisa} of 1946 value. The other currency also in circulation was ‘Irani Masheed’ that was introduced by the Shikarpuris. ‘Irani Masheed’ worth was more then the ‘Kora’ and was an accepted currency across the border.

In Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh had introduced his own currency ‘Gobindi’, named after Guru Gobind Singhji. Gobindi coins were brought to Sind by the Punjabi immigrants and was accepted as legal tender. Even Mir’s treasury accepted it. In addition, there was ‘Sita Ramyu”, made of gold that were used as coins. These Sita Ramyu had pictures of Lord Ramachandra and Mata Sita engraved on it. ‘Sita Ramyu’ was also used as jewelry by the women.) 

Seth Bhojomal’s four sons divided the legacy and business in to four equal parts and separated from each other.

Seth Bhojomal’s Muscat office however continued as a joint venture. Their Muscat office owned a ship that plied between China, Java (Indonesia), Malabar Coast, and Bombay etc. carrying cargo. Facts revealed that Seth Bhojomal had enormous wealth and influence. 

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Duel with the Mirs: -

Sind, after Kalhoras was ruled by the Mirs. Bhojwanis had built a rapport with them. But as Karachi was still in the hands of Khans of Qalat, they (Bhojwani) were more intimate with them. Khans had deputed a Nawab to look after their (Khans) interest and if the Nawab acted adversely to the Bhojwanis or Karachis interest, Bhojwani saw to it that he was replaced. 

In the year 1792-1793, Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talper, sent fifteen thousand armed Baruchs to invade and capture Karachi. The Nawab of Karachi was ill equipped, as neither he had sufficient manpower or ammunition. Seth Daryadinmal and Seth Balramdas Bhojwani supplied the ammunition and men power (Jokhiyas- a tribe and others) who were loyal to Bhojwanis, to defeat and oust the Mirs. Some time later the Mirs struck again, but only to be defeated.

Twice, the Mirs had suffered defeat from the hand of Bhojwanis. In 1794, the Mirs regrouped and again attacked Karachi. The Nawab of Karachi representing the Khans of Qalat realized that defeat was imminent and asked the Bhojwanis to provide him with an armed escort to return to Qalat. 

Seth Daryadinmal obliged and provided the Nawab with escort to see that he reached Qalat safely. Seth Daryadinmal wrote a letter to the Khans that the Nawab carried with him.  The letter stated “We Bhojwani’s are businessmen and traders. Twice we have come to your rescue and provided you with soldiers and ammunition and saved you from the Mir’s onslaught. This time you have to fight your own battle and defend on your own”.

The Khans of Qalat replied “We are not ready and nor do we have the capacity to defend Karachi. If you (Bhojwanis) are able to defend, then do so, but there is no compulsion on you”. 

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Bhojwanis, The Rulers of Karachi: -

News reached Mir Karam Ali Khan that The Khans of Qalat were not equipped and neither were ready for a battle. Mir Karam Ali also knew that it was with the help of Bhojwanis the Khans had won two battles. They, the Mirs, wrote to Seth Daryadinmal “We are very old friends, and have lived in Sind together. Khan of Qalat is an outsider and for you (Bhojwanis) to help an outsider is not fair and just

Seth Daryadinmal thought it over and realized that there was no help forthcoming from Qalat, neither manpower nor ammunition and for Bhojwanis to get involved in a fight with the Mirs, would severely effect their business. 

Seth Daryadinmal replied to Mir Karam Ali Khan saying “No doubt we are very old friend and will hand over Karachi to you only on the condition that your army will not enter Karachi. The Nawab (Governor) that you shall appoint will have to consult us on all his decisions”.  

Mir Karam Ali Khan accepted his terms and conditions and replied “The Nawab that we shall appoint will act under your directive and will consider you as Rulers of Karachi”. After receiving this assurance, Seth Daryadinmal then acceded Karachi to the Mirs.  

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Concessions to Bhojwani: -

The Mirs rejoiced on accession of Karachi. They considered Bhojwanis as rulers of Karachi and decreed that a portion of Tax collected from Karachi be paid to Bhojwanis. Though the Bhojwanis were honoured but they did not think it fit to collect tax from their own city.  Mir Fateh Ali Khan then decreed that the Bhojwanis be given a relief of 75% on what ever tax or excise duty that was due from them. They also decreed that the franchise to distill liqueur that was with the Bhojwanis be made permanent. 

Mirs invited Bhojwanis to Hyderabad as their guests and honoured them with gifts.

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Victimization of Seth Hotchand: -

Mir Gulam Ali expired in the year 1811- 1812. After him Mir Karam Ali and Mir Murad Ali succeed the throne. Mir Karam Ali and Seth Daryadinmal were close friends and exchanged gifts amongst themselves. However Mir Murad Ali felt neglected and could not digest their close friendship.  

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An episode took place in 1832: - 

A Hindu student in Nassirpur was weak in his studies and received tuition from a teacher. The teacher was very firm and strict and the boy was unable to cope up with him. He ran away from his home and sought refuge in a nearby mosque compound.

Some Muslim boys coaxed the Hindu boy to enter the mosque and locked him inside. News of his detention spread like a wild fire. Hindus protested and a strike (Bhand) was called leading to all shopkeepers downing their shutters. Due to closure of all the shops, the city residents were deprived of their daily rations and other necessities. The Muslims were the most sufferers as they bought their rations on day to day basis.

The following day a Syed (a Sindhi Muslim tribe) by the name of Noral Shah walked through the Bhojwani street uttering abusive words and insulting Hindus.

Seth Parsram, younger brother of Seth Naumal Bhojwani, asked Noral Shah to mind his language. Noral Shah in return spread a rumor and swore by the Koran Sharif that Seth Parsram had abused him. News of this incident spread like a wild fire throughout the Sind and created tense situation between the Hindus and Muslims.

Muslims brought pressure on Mir Murad Ali to summon Seth Parsram to Hyderabad. Mir Murad Ali succumbed to their pressure and wrote to Seth Hotchand to send his son Seth Parsram to Hyderabad. Mir Murad Ali yet wrote one more letter to Seth Hotchand that in case Seth Parsram was not at Karachi, then he (Seth Hotchand) should present himself before the Mirs. 

Seth Parsram had in the meanwhile left Karachi for Jaisalmer. Seth Hotchand accompanied by around one thousand Hindus went to Hyderabad to present himself before Mir Murad Ali. The presence of so many Hindu outsiders at Hyderabad increased the tension but Mir Murad Ali tactfully controlled the same by announcing that the matter against Seth Parsram would be settled by Peer (Holy Man) Sahib of Nasserpur. This brought the situation under control. 

Mir Murad Ali deputed two of his Muslim lieutenants to represent him at Nasserpur. The two lieutenants were inclined to Noral Shah. Complying with the desire of Mir Murad Ali, Seth Hotchand and his Hindu cortege went to Nassirpur but were instead attacked by the Muslim mob. Seth Hotchand was kidnapped by the mob and whisked away forcibly to Hyderabad. From Hyderabad he was taken to Thhata and onwards to Village Bagai near Shah Bunder and held captive in Narol Shah’s relative's house. 

At Bagai the kidnappers tried to convert Seth Hotchand to Islam but Seth Hotchand refused. Seth Hotchand was around fifty years of age, and Islam did not permit circumcision of aged persons. They pondered what to do.

The kidnappers forced Seth Hotchand to eat from their plate, but Seth Hotchand refused and survived by eating peanuts, bhogra (chana) and drinking water. 

Seth Hotchand was an important and influential man of Karachi. His kidnapping created unrest and raised hue and cry in the entire Sind. The rulers of Kutch and Jaisalmer also showed their concern. 

Mir Murad Ali then realized that he had committed a folly and desired to show remorse. He wrote to Nawab of Thhata to bring Seth Hotchand to Hyderabad and on his reaching Hyderabad he (Seth Hotchand) was released. Seth Hotchand then immediately left for Lakhpat where he had his offices.

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Bhojwanis Aid the British: -

The agony and anguish that Seth Hotchand and his family had suffered, Seth Naumal Bhojwani was not going to take it lying down. His mind pondered on the ways and means to get even with the Mirs. 

Colonel Pottinger (1789 – 1865) was bestowed with the title of ‘Sir’ in the year 1825, was the ‘Resident’ of Kutch. Later he was in Sind for some time as the ‘Political Agent’. In the year 1832, Sir Pottinger had met Seth Naumal in Sind when he had gone there to sign a treaty with the Mirs to permit British cargo ships to sail into the river Indus.  

Seth Naumal and Sir Pottinger’s acquaintance had developed in to a very close friendship and they corresponded with one another.

Britishers, who visited Sind at the instance of Sir Pottinger, called on Seth Naumal for any assistance and help that they needed. At times they were houseguests of Seth Naumal.  

Lord Auckland, Viceroy of India between 1836 – 1842, wanted to replace Dost Mohd. Khan, the then Hakim (ruler) of Kabul, with Shah Shajaee. In the process they were preparing to march their troops to Kabul via Shikarpur. 

Sir Pottinger sent his shopping list to Seth Naumal for the trip. The list included details of equipment required including food rations and transport for their march to Kabul. The list also included requirement of 2000 camels and 1000 other riding animals like ox, mules and horses etc.

Seth Naumal had friendly and cordial relationship with the Baruch Sardars (Chieftains) who were independent and ruled the surrounding areas of Karachi. They had no connection with the Mirs. Whenever the Baruch Sardars needed money they borrowed from Seth Naumal. 

With the help of these Sardars, Seth Naumal completed the shopping list. Though the Mirs showed their resentment, Seth Naumal ignored the Mirs.  Seth Naumal also deputed his younger brother Seth Sukhramdas to accompany the British and escort them to Shikarpur. British appreciated the gesture and cooperation that was extended by Seth Naumal and his brother.  

In the year 1838, British declared war on Dost Mohd. Khan. In 1839, Kabul and Gazni fell into the British hands and Shah Shjaee was declared 'Ruler’. 

The Afghans did not approve of British action and revolted. However, the British with their power and might persuaded the Afghans to accept Shah Shjaee as their ruler.

After Kabul, British wanted to include Sind in their Empire. Seth Naumal assisted the British again in the task. 

 The British Govt. gifted Seth Naumal with a Jagir (land) and a pension of Rs. 100/- for three generations. Seth Naumal was bestowed the title of C.S.I. 

Seth Hotchand was a witness to the defeat and downfall of the Mirs. Five years later, Seth Hotchand expired in the year 1848.

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THE BHOJWANIS: - Seth Bhojomal.       

Seth Bhojomal had four sons: M/s. Daryadinmal, Lalmandas, Thakurdas and Balramdas.

Seth Thakurdas expired during the years 1799–1800. Later in the year 1811-1812 Seth Balramdas passed away and in the years 1820-1821 Seth Daryadinmal followed. Seth Lalmandas left this world in 1830-1831.

Seth Daryadinmal had two sons: M/s. Motiram and Uderdinmal. Seth Motiram’s grandsons were Mr. Kiratrai Joharmal and Mr. Damanmal Joharmal. Mr.Uderdinmal’s grandson was Mr. Ghanshamdas Methram.

Seth Lalmandas had sired Seth Hotchand whom Mir Murad Ali and his gang had kidnapped and tried to convert him to Islam. 

Seth Hotchand had seven sons: 

 1)     His eldest son was Seth Pritamdas who sired Seth Atmaram. Seth    

     Atmaram was President of Sind Sabha and expired in the year 1885. 

  2)     His other son was Seth Naumal who sired Seth Tikamdas. Seth  

Hotchand’s grandson was Rai Bahadur Seth Aloomal Tikamdas who was one of the First graduates in Sind. 

    Seth Aloomal Tikamdas sired three sons: Seth Hashmatrai, Seth   

    Bulchand and Seth Kundanmal. Seth Hashmatrai expired in the year  

   1906. Seth Bulchand and Seth Kundanmal were alive in 1947 when   

   Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani Published his volume “History of 

   Hindus in Sind” (“SIND JAY HINDUN JEE TAREEKH”). 

  3)     Seth Parsram, the third son of Seth Hotchand had expired prior to 1947. He had no children.

  4)     Seth Tulsidas was the forth son. From his roots was born Seth   

    Jashanmal Tahilram.

  5)     Seth Sukhramdas the other son of Seth Hotchand sired Seth 

     Visramdas, Seth Premchand and Seth Daulatram. 

  a)     Seth Visramdas had two sons. Seth Mangharam and Seth Hassomal. 

Seth Hassomal worked with M/s William Watson & Co. and drew a handsome salary. But the company, in 1902, went bankrupt.

  b)     Seth Daulatram Hotchand sired four sons: Seth Jamiatrai, Seth 

    Chanrai, Seth Amardinlal and Seth Hemandas. 

  i)       Seth Jamiatrai’s son Seth Tolaram worked with Karachi Municipal 

     Corp. for many years. In 1941 he was the Chief Officer and also a    

     social worker. His brother Seth Partabrai held a senior post with 

     B.O.A.C. (British Overseas Airways Corp. now called British Airways). 

  (ii) Seth Chanrai and Seth Hemandas were living at the time when Diwan 

     Bherumal M. Advani published his volume. 

  6)     Seth Gopaldas was the sixth son of Seth Hotchand. From his roots  

     came Seth Bakhtomal.

  7)     Seth Hotchand’s seventh son was Seth Lekhraj. His grandsons were  

     Seth Nihalchand Gidumal, Rai Bahadur Seth Lilaram Gidumal and     

     others. His cousins: Mr. Pribhdas and Mr. Janardhan Lokumal were  

     Advocates. 

  Seth Bhojomal’s third son was Seth Thakurdas who was a Shroff and had his business under the name of “Bhojwani Bros.”  

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TULSIANI (1): - Bhai Tulsidas.

 Nukh: Makhija.

Tulsianis are Arorvanshi. They lived at Aror (Alwar). See Arorvanshi and Makhija.  

At the time of Arab invasion (year 711 A D) an exodus took place in Sind and many Hindus moved to Punjab. Thereafter, during the Kalhora and Mir reign, Tulsianis returned. There are Makhijas in Punjab also. 

There are two Tulsiani families. One, hailing from Bhareen and the other hailing from Hyderabad. But what is narrated below are Tulsianis from Sekhat, some fifteen miles away from Hyderabad, in district Halla.

Isranis of Larkana, Makhijas of Bhareen, Murjanis of Bhargareen and Amil Mirchandanis of Hyderabad are Nukh cousins of the above mentioned Tulsianis. (They all have same Nukh i.e. Makhija). 

Customs and rituals in Sind varied from town to town, village to village and city to city.

In Sekhat and other villages, the affluent were called ‘Sataveeha (27)’ (sat=7, veeha= 20). Slightly little less affluent were called ‘A-kavyhs (21)’ (aka=1, vyhs=20). Still lower in wealth were divided in the following categories: ‘Pandheriha’ (15), ‘Yareha’ (11), ‘Kangan’, ‘Badaee’, and ‘Pherahi’.

The ‘Sataveeha daughter, on her marriage received minimum of 5 Parhayies (gift or dowry.) One Parhayie was equivalent to one hundred rupees. Some well to do  gave 8 Parhayies.    

‘A-kayhas’ gave 4 Parhayies, ‘Pandheriha’ gave 3 Parhayies and ‘Yareha’ gave 2 Parhayies. 

The Sataveeha’s children were well behaved and disciplined. They were sought after by the families of other categories for marriage to their children. Some well to do families gave upto ten thousand rupees as well. 

 After the Anti Dowry Act came into force, the distinction disappeared. The ‘Pandheriha’ started giving 5 Parhayies and considered themselves as ‘Sataveeha. 

According to Hindu custom, marriage of daughter is considered ‘Kanya Daan’. But there were some families who took money in exchange for their daughter’s hand. They were considered the lowest of the lowest. 

Then there were the  ‘Kangan’ who did not take anything for their daughter’s hand. 

And then again there were those who did ‘Badaee’ or ‘Kanvati’. Kanvati meant to give their daughter in exchange for the son. 

The ‘Pherahi’ had a novel system. They did not exchange money. If a family had two boys and the other family only one girl, the girl’s family had to find another family who had a girl of marriageable age. No exchange of ‘Parhayies’.

In 1947 the Tulisianis represented 66.6 % of the Hindu inhabitants in Sekhat. The seat of Mukhi, till 1947, was occupied by a Tulsiani.

The forefather of Tulsiani, Bhai Tulsidas was a saint (sant) and a noble man.  

Bhai Tulsidas’s son Bhai Balchand was also a religious man and worshiper of Shree Uderolal Sahib whose temple was about three miles away from Sekhat. Bhai Balchand rose early in the morning, and before going to his shop, he walked to Shree Uderolal Sahib to clean the temple.  

It is said that one day Shree Uderolal, pleased with his devotion, appeared before him and gave him few grain seeds and told him to put it in a Gundi (a large earthen vessel for storage of grain with an opening on top and another one on the side). 

Shree Uderolal explained to Bhai Balchand that whatever quantity of grain Bhai Balchand would remove from Gundi, the Gundi would replenish it automatically. Shree Uderolal warned Bhai Balchand to never look inside the Gundi. The day he or any one else looked into the Gundi, the supply of grain would cease.

Bhai Balchand put the seeds into the Gundi and went about his routine, selling grain etc. The supply of grain never ran out. Whatever grain he sold was replaced automatically. From the sale of grain he earned in one year around five thousand rupees. 

The neighbors wondered from where so much grain was coming. Some women inquired from Mrs. Balchand and she narrated the facts. Without realizing one of the ladies removed the lid of Gundi and peeped inside. All they saw was a few seeds of grain that Shree Uderolal Sahib had given to Bhai Balchand and nothing else. The grain stopped flowing.

Bhai Balchand had one son named Bhai Mulchand. Bhai Mulchand sired four sons: M/s. Chetandas, Tolaram, Tiloomal and Janimal.

Bhai Chetandas sired six sons: M/s. Hotchand, Jasumal, Bhojomal, Rahomal, Deomal and Hemandas. 

Seth Hotchand was an influential Thhekedar (contractor). Dubious people kept their distance from him. He had 3 sons: M/s. Danomal, Nanikram and Gagandas. 

Seth Danomal’s son: Seth Chandiram. Seth Chandiram was in 1947, manager of M/s. Wadhumal & Nanikram of Karachi. He had four sons: M/s. Rajomal Karamchand and two others.

Seth Nanikram Hotchand, in 1947 was coal and timber merchant in partnership with Mr. Wadhumal Tejumal Sipahmalani (Hyderabadi Amil) at Karachi. Their firm was known as M/s. Wadhumal & Nanikram. 

Seth Nanikram loved entertaining and some of his friends who were in the Government service, wanted to procure for him the title of ‘Rai Sahib’, but Seth Nanikram declined. 

Seth Nanikram had one son: Seth Lilaram who worked with him. 

Seth Lilaram had one son and three daughters. His son named Tejbhan expired at the tender age of 3 years. 

Seth Gagandas Hotchand, the third son, was also a partner of M/s. Wadhumal & Nanikram. 

Seth Jasumal Chetandas, brother of Seth Hotchand, was a simple, quiet and soft-spoken person. He expired at the age of 30 years. He had two sons: M/s. Raghumal and Roopchand. 

Bhai Roopchand Jasumal expired leaving behind one daughter.

Seth Raghumal Jasumal was a pious and simple man. He was called Sadh, short for Sadhu. Seth Raghumal had two sons: M/s. Sadhumal and Jethanand. Mr. Sadhumal, in 1947, worked in a Brick factory. 

Mr. Jethanand Raghumal also known as ‘Betab’ was an Advocate and freedom fighter. Thrice he had been beaten by the police and sent to jail. In the 1942 freedom struggle, his arm was broken in a police lathi (baton) charge. He was selected as a Congress Delegate from Hyderabad district. In 1947 he was member of the Sind Congress Committee and had participated in the Indian National Congress at Merut.   He was also a social worker.

Mr. Jethanand along with Dr. Hemandas Wadhwani of Kherpur formed the ‘Sind Anti Dowry Association’ and was its general secretary. Mr Jethanand was also a vivid writer. He wrote ‘Sonahari Bharat’ (Golden India).     

Seth Bhojomal Chetandas had two sons: M/s. Basumal and Kodumal. Bhai Basumal, in 1947, had a provision store. Bhai Kodumal had expired earlier. They both lived at Tando Yaam. 

Seth Rahomal Chetandas and his son Bhai Dholaram had expired prior to 1947. They dealt in distribution of local wine. Their family lived at Tando Adam.

Seth Deomal Chetandas, who also expired prior to 1947, had three sons: M/s. Gehimal, Wadhumal and Tahilmal. In 1947, they were in service.

Seth Hemandas Chetandas died at the young age.

Seth Tolaram Mulchand, brother of Seth Chetandas, had two sons: M/s. Vishindas and Tikyomal. They were zamindars and owned farms and gardens. However, their descendants had to sell all their holding, one at a time. Their family in 1947 lived at Sekhat.

Seth Tiloomal Mulchand, brother of Seth Tolaram, sired Seth Totaldas who was well versed in Law. All Hindus and Muslim went to him for settling their disputes.

Seth Totaldas’ son was Seth Dharamdas. He sired M/s. Chimandas, Nihalchand and Daryadinmal.

Bhai Chimandas had five sons: M/s. Bhagwandas, Phatandas and three others. They, in 1947, had an office at Karachi. 

Bhai Janimal Mulchand had five sons: M/s. Topandas, Shamandas, Lalchand, Mulchand and Pagaromal.  

Bhai Topandas Janimal sired Mr. Lalchand. His sons: M/s. Notandas, Chhatomal, Chandumal and Gehimal. They, in 1947, were Shroffs. 

Bhai Shamandas Janimal sired three sons: M/s. Khemchand, Rewachand, and Tahilram. Bhai Khemchand was a partner with the Manghnani’s of Tando Adam. Bhai Rewachand’s son Bhai Chandumal, in 1947, had an office at Bombay.  

Bhai Janimal’s son Mukhi Lalchand expired without any issue. Amongst the Tulsianis, Mukhi Lalchand had a good personality and commanded respect. Both the Hindus and Muslims sought his help to resolve their disputes. 

Mukhi Lalchand’s brother was Bhai Mulchand. His son Bhai Harchandmal, in 1947, was Mukhi of Sekhat. 

Bhai Pagaromal’s descendants lived at Hyderabad. 

In 1947, the year of partition, most of the Tulsianis had left their village and moved to Karachi, Hyderabad, Tando Yaam and other larger towns for personal safety.  

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TULSIANI (2): -  

 Nukh: - Machhar. 

Tulsianis with Machhar Nukh are Nukh cousins of Vaswanis. Amongst the Vaswani some are Amil and some Bhaibund. During the reign of Mirs these Tulsianis came as traders to Hyderabad from Ghacheri Taluka Mori. In the year 1947, there were six Tulsiani families residing at Hyderabad.  

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THARANI: - 

Tharanis lived in Shahdadpuri Paro in Hyderabad (1947). Right from the days of Kalhoras they were zamindars. After their forefather expired, they had to sell their holdings part by part and a time came when they had to take up jobs for survival.  

Mr. Udhavdas Tharani joined the Railways and became Asst. Traffic Superintendent and later he was bestowed with the title of ‘Rai Sahib’. His son Mr. Jethanand had passed his G.D.A. exam and established Hyderabad’s National Bank. In 1947, he was Manager of Hyderabad’s Bharat Bank. 

Mr. Roopchand Jhamrai Tharani was born in 1868. After passing Public Service exam he joined Karachi Tramways. By hard work and perseverance he attained high posts. Mr. Roopchand worked with the Tramways for thirteen years. He then, in the company of Brahmo Samaj, devoted his time to social work and religion and was nicknamed ‘Bhagat’.

Mr. Roopchand’s routine was rise early in the morning, do his pooja, and then go to Bhai Wassiamal’s Municipal Hospital at Phulayli where he looked after and cared for the sick. He spent over a hundred rupees per month from his pocket caring for the sick and needy. Rajarshi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal and others contributed to the cause as well.

Mr. Roopchand had contributed through the Secretary of Brahmo Samaj five hundred Rupees towards construction of Maharshi Devinder Nath Tagore Temple. This fact came to light after his demise on 12th Dec. 1914.

Mr. Hari Sunder, son of Mr. Roopchand, had founded ‘Koromal Sahitya Mandal’ and published many books in Sindhi. He founded ‘Sudhar Sabha’ that gave dole to the needy. Hyderabad’s Philanthropists contributed three thousand rupees to the cause monthly.

Bhagat Roopchand’s brother was Mr. Vishindas. His sons: Dr. Hassaram and Dr. Pritamdas studied medicine at Calcutta. After returning from Calcutta, Dr. Hassaram inaugurated a branch of Indian National Congress with Honorable Seth Harchandrai Vishindas as its President and he (Dr. Hassaram) as its secretary.  Dr. Hassaram was also editor of ‘Phoenix’ newspaper for some time.

Dr. Hassaram’s son Mr. Parmanand had gone to London to do his A. & C. degree and was an aviator working (1947) at Kanpur. 

Dr. Pritamdas (1947) was practicing medicine for 44 years. For about ten years he was Municipal Counselor at Karachi. 

Seth Bhojraj Jhamatmal Tharani was a Sindworkee, and had lived in Japan for many years.

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PARWANI (1): - Seth Perumal.

 Nukh: Dar-ri.

Parwani are Nukh cousins of Baharwani, Balwani, Ramchandani, Ramrakhani, Malkani and Hingorani. 

Most of the families under Dar-ri nukh had migrated from Jaisalmer. But, it is said that these Parwanis came from Punjab.

Seth Metharam and his brother were sons of Seth Jajimal. Their third brother Seth Vasumal expired without any issue. 

Seth Methram had two sons: M/s. Perumal and Balchand. It is after Seth Perumal’s name that their surname was born.

Around fifty years ago (prior to 1947) Seth Perumal and a relative of his settled in a village in Sanghar Taluka and named the place after their uncle as Tando Vasumal. Despite its name, the village was called ‘Peru Jo Goth’ (village). Seth Perumal and his family had offices at Tharparkar and were large zamindars and contractors. They dealt in cotton and grain. 

Seth Perumal was a charitable and religious man. His son Seth Sitaldas was zamindar and member of the Sind Assembly. In May 1942, he was murdered by the Huks (Sindhi dacoits). His younger brother Seth Manghomal, in 1947, was member of Congress Party and member of Sind Assembly

Seth Sital has had 5 sons they were called 5 Pandavas 

The elder son: Seth Udhavdas, 

Seth Chammandas was elected member National Assembly in year 1985,

Seth Pribdhas, 

Seth Karamchand, the most influential of all these 5 brothers.

The youngest, Seth Jhamandas 

They all were settled in Mirpurkhas and all were known king makers (the 'king makers' means that any key position in the local police, union, councils,or local administration would not be appointed unless approval was given by them. Most Hindus would seek their advice.

Seth Karamchand, a very influential person had 4 sons, 

Eldest Gobind Perwani who is known for his noble nature a business man cum politician settled in Karachi.

Every famous person in Pakistan knows him.

The second brother Rattan Perwani was a member of Parliament Assembly in 1985.

Raj kumar  is settled in Mumbai India.

The youngest Vijay Perwani has a very high job in the Govt. of Sindh. 

This family is one of the oldest family of Sindh they are still land lords of Sindh and have business in Karachi as well.

In Sindh still when ever there are elections the Perwani family secure  seats by top numbers.

Submitted Feb 2006


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PARWANI (2): - Seth Parumal.

 Nukh: Rogha. 

 

These Parwanis came from village Jhalorey district Mirpur Khas and were named after their great grandfather Seth Parumal. 

Seth Parumal’s sons: M/s. Najmal, Dayaldas and Balchand. Mr. Najmal sired one son: Mr. Manomal. Mr. Dayaldas had four sons: M/s. Thakumal, Motiram, Tirthdas and Mulchand. Mr. Balchand sired three sons: M/s. Gehimal, Tejumal and Chatumal. They were all zamindars.

Seth Manomal’s son Seth Harchandrai was in 1947 President of Bhaibund Panchayat of Tharparkar District. He was a Justice of Peace and member of Mirpur Khas Municipal Corp. for seven years. Seth Harchandrai was a liberal and an influential man.   

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PAGRANI: -

Nukh: Khoha.

Pagranis identify themselves as Brahm Khatris and hail from village Manjho in District Kotri. They are also called ‘Khati Sadh’.

From the Pagrani family roots came Seth Khushaldas Panjumal Pagrani. He had four sons: M/s. Parmomal, Assardas, Rojimal and Janimal. They were all well to do. In the year 1947, there were 36 Pagrani families in Manjho involved in dyeing and printing of fabric. Some of them were zamindars.

Seth Assardas Khushaldas was a jovial person full of jokes. Seth Janimal’s grandson was Master Tolaram Sitaldas who was in 1947 head master of Sindhi School.

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POJARA (PUJARI): -

Nukh: Talhar.

Pojara (Pujari) are nukh cousins of Khatwanis and few others who share the same Talhar Nukh.

Pojaras hail from District Kotri. Prominent amongst them was Seth Motiram Pujari. He had three sons: M/s. Bhojomal, Teckchand and Ramomal. Seth Motiram’s grandson was Seth Jethmal Teckchand. Seth Motiram’s nephew, Seth Thakurdas Motumal was a rice merchant in 1947.

 

Read: How to pray

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'The Source of Sindhi Surnames' is a translation into English, by Mr. Narain Sobhraj Kimatrai from the original in Sindhi by Mr. Diwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani

 

 

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